It has been a while since I have taken a firm stance on some bit of typographic minutia that most normal people don’t care about, so today, I’m writing about whether you should indent the first line of the first paragraph when laying out narrative text. Get ready for a wild ride, similar to previous posts on drop caps, double spacing after a period, and the serial comma. (For those of you who are really into this sort of thing, I have created a category called “Typographic Minutiae” in our sidebar. Tell your friends!)
Not long ago, I was in a meeting with a freelance client whom I had not worked with before. I was nodding at comments and suggestions while going over the first draft of a newsletter: “Take all of the text from this Russian novel and put it on page 3.” Nod nod nod. “And in all the leftover space make this 50-pixel-wide photo huge.” Nod nod nod. “And use 17 different styles for these headlines.” Nod nod nod. “And indent the first line of the first paragraph in these blocks of text.” Screeching record-scratch sound.
To give you a visual of what I’m talking about, see the examples above. (Thanks to Bleacher Report for the text.) I have always set the first paragraph of a block of text, either at the very beginning of a passage or after a subhead, flush left, including the first line, as with the example on the left.
I remember a graduate school professor explaining it like this: You indent to indicate a new paragraph. There’s no reason to indent the first paragraph because it’s obvious that it’s a new paragraph since it’s the first one. Now go design a ball that is really a mask that will save the world. (Grad school was weird.)
Robert Bringhurst, author of The Elements of Typographic Style, which many designers consider the Bible of typography, says it like this:
The function of a paragraph indent is to mark a pause, setting the paragraph apart from what precedes it. If a paragraph is preceded by a title or subhead, the indent is superfluous and can therefore be omitted.
If Robert Bringhurst is not an authoritative enough source for you, Wikipedia says this: “Professionally printed material typically does not indent the first paragraph, but indents those that follow.”
As with all typographic styles, if you follow a specific style guide, you should defer to it. (And whatever style you follow, be sure to follow it consistently rather than mixing and matching.) There are some style guides that say you should indent the first line of all paragraphs, including the first one. For instance, most newspapers follow the Associated Press style guide, which calls for indenting the first line of all paragraphs. That said, I have always hated AP style because 98 percent of its guidelines are intended more for saving money on ink than actual clarity of language. (Most newspapers also fully justify (on the right and the left) narrow columns of text, which looks ridiculous, so if that’s your model for good design, best of luck to you.)
Ultimately, it’s not incorrect to indent the first line of the first paragraph of narrative text. People aren’t going to point and laugh if you do it. But in my estimation, left justifying the entire first paragraph is one of those subtle nuances that sets professional design apart from amateur design.
A first-line indent is the most common way to signal the start of a new paragraph. The other common way is with space between paragraphs.
First-line indents and space between paragraphs have the same relationship as belts and suspenders. You only need one to get the job done. Using both is a mistake. If you use a first-line indent on a paragraph, don’t use space between. And vice versa.A first-line indent on the first paragraph of any text is optional, because it’s obvious where the paragraph starts.
Typically, a first-line indent should be no smaller than the point size of the text, otherwise it’ll be hard to see. The indent should be no bigger than four times the point size, otherwise the first line will seem disconnected from the left edge of the text block. So a paragraph set in 12 point should have a first-line indent of 12–48 points.
But use your judgment—consider the width of the text block when setting the first-line indent. For instance, narrow text blocks should have first-line indents toward the low end of this range. Wider text blocks should have bigger indents.
Don’t use word spaces or tabs to indent the first line—as you recall from white-space characters, that’s not what they’re for. Paragraphs indented with word spaces or tabs are hard to keep consistent and difficult to reformat. Use the right tool for the job.
How to set a first-line indent
Right-click in the text and select → . Under , from the popup menu labeled , select and enter the measurement in the adjacent box.
→ (or option + ⌘ + t) → button → pane → under , in the box labeled , enter the measurement.
Use the property
by the way
It’s possible to set a negative first-line indent, or hanging indent. Hanging indents are used in lists to create a rectangular text block with a list bullet that dangles off to the left. (Like this one.) Avoid using a hanging indent without a bullet—your text block should not resemble Oklahoma. Text should only be indented inward.
rop caps are, I suppose, another option for the first paragraph—the first letter of the paragraph is enlarged so it descends three or four lines. In certain decorative contexts, they’re tolerable. But if you’re just using the drop-cap function in your typesetting program, it’ll just look pretentious and dorky.