Harvard Referencing Examples Bibliography Format

Harvard is a style of referencing, primarily used by university students, to cite information sources.

Two types of citations are included:

  1. In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation.

    Depending on the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this:

    "After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe…" (Fitzgerald, 2004).

  2. Reference Lists are located at the end of the work and display full citations for sources used in the assignment.

    Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in a Harvard Reference list:

    Fitzgerald, F. (2004). The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner.


Harvard Reference List Overview

Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the:

  1. Name of the author(s)
  2. Year published
  3. Title
  4. City published
  5. Publisher
  6. Pages used

Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format:

  • Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication.

If you’d like more information about Harvard Reference Lists, visit Anglia Ruskin University’s guide

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author

The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).

If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation.

Example: One author AND first edition:

  • Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum ride. New York: Little, Brown.

Example: One author AND NOT the first edition

  • Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with Two or More Authors

When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

  • Last name, First initial. and Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Example:

  • Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing. Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156.
  • Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
  • Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151.

* remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition!

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, La Trobe University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s).
  • Bressler, L. (2010). My girl, Kylie. In: L. Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love, 1st ed. Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. 78-92.

* When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is displayed, even when it is the first edition.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author

When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

  • Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Brown, D. (2003). Deception point. New York: Atria Books.
  • Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles

The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s).

Examples:

  • Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today, 59(2), pp. 269-290.
  • Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard references citations for journals quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website

When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.

Structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard references citations for journals quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles

When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).

Example:

  • Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for newspapers quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website

To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for newspapers quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Magazines

When citing magazines, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Magazine, (Volume), Page(s).

Example:

  • Davidson, J. (2008). Speak her language. Men’s Health, (23), pp.104-106.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for magazines quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites

When citing a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

When no author is listed, use the following structure:

  • Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Messer, L. (2015). 'Fancy Nancy' Optioned by Disney Junior. [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015].
  • Mms.com, (2015). M&M'S Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for websites quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs

When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the type of resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.

Use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
  • Robin, J. (2014). A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation. 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for ebooks and pdfs quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Archive Material

Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house.

The structure for archival materials includes:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the material. [format] Name of the university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. City.

Examples:

  • Pearson, J. (1962). Letter to James Martin. [letter] The Jackson Historical Society, Civil Rights Collection. Jackson.
  • Marshall, S. and Peete, L. (1882). Events Along the Canal. [program] Afton Library, Yardley History. Yardley.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for archive material quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Artwork

To cite artwork, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year created). Title. [Medium]. City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum.

Example:

  • Gilbert, S. (1795-1796). George Washington. [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection.
  • Jensen, L., Walters, P. and Walsh, Q. (1994). Faces in the Night. [Paint Mural] Trenton: The Trenton Free Library.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for artwork quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, RMIT University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs

Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual.

When citing a blog post, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed. [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for blogs quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts

To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure:

  • Series title, (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.

Examples:

  • Modern Family, (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc.
  • The Preston and Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for broadcasts quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of New South Wales has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference.

Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding:

If published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

If not published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.

Examples:

  • Palmer, L., Gover, E. and Doublet, K. (2013). Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers. [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2014].
  • Fox, R. (2014). Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference. Hartford: AFA, p. 24.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for conference proceedings quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases

To cite a court case, use the following format:

  • Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case.

Example:

  • Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. [2015]12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for court cases quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dictionary Entry

When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page.

When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

**If no author/editor/or contributor is given, omit it from the citation.
**If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date

Examples:

  • Sporadic (1993). In: Webstin Dictionary, 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223.
  • Reference. (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for dictionary entries quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations

A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree.

Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.

Example:

  • Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva University.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for dissertations quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Southampton Solent University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and Film

When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format:

  • Film title. (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Film maker.

**The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made. Eg: Hollywood
**The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer.

Example:

  • Girls Just Want To Have Fun. (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for DVDs, video, and films quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails

Email citations use the following format:

  • Sender’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Subject Line of Email. [email].

Example:

  • Niles, A. (2013). Update on my health. [email].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for emails quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Southern Queensland has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles

An encyclopedia is a book, or set of books, used to find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order.

Use this format to cite an encyclopedia:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. In: Encyclopedia title, Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s).

Example:

  • Harding, E. (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals, 3rd ed. New York: Reference World, p. 39.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for encyclopedia articles quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications

Government publications consist of documents that are issued by local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions.

Use the following format to cite the government publications:

  • Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).

Examples:

  • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). BicyclePA Routes. Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for government publications quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Interviews

When citing an interview, use the following format:

  • Last name of Interviewer, First initial. and Last name of Interviewee, First initial. (Year of Interview). Title or Description of Interview.

Example

  • Booker, C. and Lopez, J. (2014). Getting to know J. Lo.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for interviews quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Liverpool has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings

To cite a music piece or recording, use the following format:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label.

When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Jackson, M. (1982). Thriller. [CD] West Hollywood: Epic.
  • Kaskade, (2015). Never Sleep Alone. [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for music or recordings quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos

To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
  • 7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto. [video]. Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for online images or videos quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents

When citing patents, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title or Description of Patent. Patent number.

**It should be noted that even if the information is found online, no online information needs to be included.

Example:

  • Masuyama, T., Suzuki, M. and Fujimoto, H. (1993). Structure for securing batteries used in an electric vehicle. 5,392,873.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for patents quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts

When citing a podcast, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5. [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for podcasts quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, De Montfort University Leicester has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and Lectures

To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title.

Example:

  • Valenza, J. (2014). Librarians and Social Capital.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for presentations and lectures quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Birmingham City University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases

When citing a press release in print, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title.

If found online, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Imagine Easy Solutions, (2015). ResearchReady Jr. Now Available For Elementary Age Students.
  • EBSCO, (2014). EBSCO adds EasyBib Citation Integration. [online] Available at: http://campustechnology.com [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for press releases quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts

To cite any type of religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, Quran, use the following format:

  • Title (Year published). City published: Publisher, pages used.

Example:

  • New American Standard Bible, (1998). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc, pp.332-340.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for religious texts quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Manchester Metropolitan University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Reports

When citing a report, use the following format:

  • Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title. [online] City published: Publisher, Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Certify, (2015). First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends. [online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Available at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for reports quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Software

When citing software, use the following format:

  • Title or Name of Software. (Year Published). Place or city where the software was written: Company or publisher.

Example:

  • Espanol. (2010). Arlington: Rosetta Stone.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for software quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.


Harvard In-Text Citations Overview

Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source.

Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the author and the year the source was published.

The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence.

In-Text Citations for One Author

The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses.

Example:

  • Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “... he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).

If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004).

In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them.

Examples:

  • “A range of values can express emotion, too. Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).
  • “Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most - yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011).

In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors

Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the publishing year.

Example:

  • It can be said that “knowledge of the stages of growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013).

Example:

  • Potter et al. (2013) go on to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.”

In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors

Use the name of the organization in place of the author.

Example:

  • “Dr. Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014).

If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses.

Example:

  • The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.”

In-Text Citations for No Author

When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year.

Example:

  • Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014).

In-Text Citations With No Date

When a date is not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • “Her hair was the color of lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo)

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.


Need more example reference of Harvard style. Click here.

Harvard Format Citation Guide

This is a complete guide to Harvard in-text and reference list citations.This easy-to-use, comprehensive guide makes citing any source easy. Check out our other citation guides on APA and MLA 8 referencing.

Back to top

1. Harvard Referencing Basics: Reference List

A reference list is a complete list of all the sources used when creating a piece of work. This list includes information about the sources like the author, date of publication, title of the source and more. A Harvard reference list must:

  • Be on a separate sheet at the end of the document

  • Be organised alphabetically by author, unless there is no author then it is ordered by the source title, excluding articles such as a, an or the

    • If there are multiple works by the same author these are ordered by date, if the works are in the same year they are ordered alphabetically by the title and are allocated a letter (a,b,c etc) after the date

  • Be double spaced: there should be a full, blank line of space between each line of text

  • Contain full references for all in-text references used

Back to top

2. Harvard Referencing Basics: In-Text

In-text references must be included following the use of a quote or paraphrase taken from another piece of work.

In-text references are references written within the main body of text and refer to a quote or paraphrase. They are much shorter than full references. The full reference of in-text citations appears in the reference list. In Harvard referencing, in-text citations contain the author(s)’s or editor(s)’s surname, year of publication and page number(s). Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form:

Mitchell (2017, p. 189) states.. Or (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

(Note: p. refers to a single page, pp. refers to a range of pages)

Two or Three Authors:

When citing a source with two or three authors, state all surnames like so:

Mitchell, Smith and Thomson (2017, p. 189) states… Or

(Mitchell, Coyne and Thomson, 2017, p. 189)

Four or More Authors:

In this case, the first author’s surname should be stated followed by ‘et al’:

Mitchell et al (2017, p. 189) states… Or (Mitchell et al, 2017, p, 189)

No Author:

If possible, use the organisation responsible for the post in place of the author. If not, use the title in italics:

(A guide to citation, 2017, pp. 189-201)

Multiple Works From the Same Author in the Same Year:

If referencing multiple works from one author released in the same year, the works are allocated a letter (a, b, c etc) after the year. This allocation is done in the reference list so is done alphabetically according to the author's surname and source title:

(Mitchell, 2017a, p. 189) or Mitchell (2017b, p. 189)

Citing Multiple Works in One Parentheses:

List the in-text citations in the normal way but with semicolons between different references:

(Mitchell, 2017, p. 189; Smith, 200; Andrews, 1989, pp. 165-176)

Citing Different Editions of the Same Work in One Parentheses:

Include the author(s)’s name only once followed by all the appropriate dates separated by semicolons:

Mitchell (2010; 2017) states… Or (Mitchell, 2010; 2017)

Citing a Reference With No Date:

In this case simply state ‘no date’ in place of the year: (Mitchell, no date, p. 189).

Citing a Secondary Source:

In this case, state the reference you used first followed by ‘cited in’ and the original author:

Smith 2000 (cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189) or (Smith, 2000, cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

Back to top

3. How to Cite Different Source Types

  • In-text citations remain quite constant across source types, unless mentioned explicitly, assume the in-text citation uses the rules stated above

  • Reference list references vary quite a lot between sources.

How to Cite a Book in Harvard Format

Book referencing is the simplest format in Harvard referencing style. The basic format is as follows:

Book Referencing Example:

Mitchell, J.A. and Thomson, M. (2017) A guide to citation.3rd edn. London: London Publishings.

How to Cite an Edited Book in Harvard Format

Edited books are collations of chapters written by different authors. Their reference format is very similar to the book reference except instead of the author name, the editor name is used followed by (eds.) to distinguish them as an editor. The basic format is:

Editor surname(s), initial(s). (eds.) (Year Published). Title. Edition. Place of

publication: publishers

Edited Book Example:

William, S.T. (eds.) (2015) Referencing: a guide to citation rules. New York: My Publisher

How to Cite a Chapter in an Edited Book in Harvard Format

For citing chapters, you need to add the chapter author and chapter title to the reference. The basic format is as follows:

Chapter in an Edited Book Example:

Troy B.N. (2015) ‘Harvard citation rules’ in Williams, S.T. (ed.) A guide to citation rules. New York: NY Publishers, pp. 34-89.

In-Text Citations: Chapter in an Edited Book

Use the chapter author surname, not the editor.

How to Cite an E-Book in Harvard Format

To reference an e-book, information about its collection, location online and the date it was accessed are needed as well as author name, title and year of publishing:

If the e-book is accessed via an e-book reader the reference format changes slightly:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year Published). Title. Edition. E-book format [e-book reader]. Available at URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

This includes information about the e-book format and reader, for instance this could be ‘Kindle e-book [e-book reader]’.

E-Book Example:

Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M. and Coyne, R.P. (2017) A guide to citation. E-book library [online]. Available at: https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 10 September 2016)

How to Cite a Journal Article in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a journal article is:

Journal Article Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9), p70-81.

Journal Article Online Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9) [online]. Available at:  https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 15 November 2016)

How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

Citing a newspaper article is similar to citing a journal article except, instead of the volume and issue number, the edition and date of publication are needed:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month,

page number(s).

Note: edition is used only where applicable.

Newspaper Article Example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017) ‘Changes to citation formats shake the research world’, The Mendeley Telegraph (Weekend edition), 6 July, pp.9-12.

How to Cite an Online Journal or Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

To cite an online journal or newspaper article, the page numbers section from the print journal or newspaper reference is swapped with the URL or DOI the article can be accessed from and when it was accessed. So the reference for an online journal article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of article’,  Title of journal, volume(issue/season) [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

And the reference for an online newspaper article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

How to Cite Non-Print Material in Harvard Format

How to Cite an Online Photograph in Harvard Format

The basic format is as follows:

Photograph surname, initial. (Year of publication) Title of photograph [online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Online Photograph Example:

Millais, J.E. (1851-1852) Ophelia [online]. Available at: www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/millais-ophelia-n01506 (Accessed: 21 June 2014)

How to Cite a Film in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a film is:

Film Example:

Rear Window (1954) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures.

How to Cite a TV Programme in Harvard Format

The basic format for citing a TV programme is as follows:

TV Programme Example:

‘Fly’ (2010) Breaking Bad, Series 2, episode 10. AMC, 23 May 2010.

How to Cite Music in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite an album is as follows:

Music Example:

Beyonce (2016) Lemonade [Visual Album] New York: Parkwood Records. Available at: https://www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/ (Accessed: 17 February 2016).

How to Cite a Website in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a website is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year of publishing)  Title of page/site [Online[. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Website Example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017) How and when to reference [Online]. Available at: https://www.howandwhentoreference.com/ (Accessed: 27 May 2017)

To learn more about citing a web page and entire websites in APA, MLA or Harvard check out How to Cite a Website post.

For a summary of all the references for each source type along with examples take a look at our Ultimate Citation Cheat Sheet. It also contains examples for MLA 8 and APA formats.

Back to top

One thought on “Harvard Referencing Examples Bibliography Format

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *